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Cloud-init

Cloud-init scripts let you optionally automate the initialization of virtual machines.

Setting a cloud-init script

To set a cloud-init script, click on the "Click for more advanced options" green link when deploying your virtual machine.
Click on the "Click for more advanced options" green link to show this textarea
This is the default cloudinit configuration we pass to the hypervisor:
#cloud-config
user: user
password: [your defined password]
chpasswd: {expire: False}
ssh_pwauth: True
package_update: True
package_upgrade: False
The script that you provide simply gets appended to the end of this file.

Examples

Example 1: Preventing the automatic update of NVIDIA drivers

NVIDIA drivers autoupdate on the first boot. Once this happens, they become unusable. By including this cloud-init script, you'll lock the NVIDIA driver versions so that they do not autoupdate

Objectives

  • Write a file using cloud-init write_files in base64 encoding that uses apt-mark to hold NVIDIA packages from being automatically updated
    • The file will have the following contents: dpkg-query -W --showformat='${Package} ${Status}\n' | grep -v deinstall | awk '{ print $1 }' | grep -E 'nvidia.*-[0-9]+$' | xargs -r -L 1 apt-mark hold
  • Run a file

Process

We'll set this as our cloud-init script:
write_files:
- encoding: b64
path: /home/user/tensordock_scripts/prevent_update.sh
permissions: '0644'
content: ZHBrZy1xdWVyeSAtVyAtLXNob3dmb3JtYXQ9JyR7UGFja2FnZX0gJHtTdGF0dXN9XG4nIHwgZ3JlcCAtdiBkZWluc3RhbGwgfCBhd2sgJ3sgcHJpbnQgJDEgfScgfCBncmVwIC1FICdudmlkaWEuKi1bMC05XSskJyB8IHhhcmdzIC1yIC1MIDEgc3VkbyBhcHQtbWFyayBob2xk
owner: user:user
runcmd:
- bash /home/user/tensordock_scripts/prevent_update.sh

Debrief

Explanation:
  • First, our server will write the new file, prevent_update.sh, in the user's new tensordock_scripts directory
  • Then, our server run this file, locking in our NVIDIA driver versions to prevent autoupdates

Example 2: Hosting a website with Apache2

Objectives

  • Install a package through cloud-init packages
  • Write a file using cloud-init write_files in plaintext

Process

By default, the Apache2 webserver listens on port 80. As such, we'll first forward an external port into that internal port.
Because Apache listens on port 80, you'll want to forward an external port into that internal port
Then, we'll set this as our cloud-init script:
packages:
- apache2
write_files:
- path: /var/www/html/index.html
permissions: '0644'
content: |
<html>
<head>
<title> TensorDock Marketplace VM </title>
</head>
<body style="font-family: 'Courier New', monospace;">
<p> You've reached your <span style="color: green;">TensorDock</span> virtual machine!</p>
</body>
</html>
owner: www-data:www-data
Note the indentation of the custom HTML we've defined above! When writing files, we must append four (4) spaces in front of each text block.

Debrief

Explanation:
  • First, our server will install the apache2 package
  • Then, our server will overwrite the we create an index.html file with the custom HTML we've defined
Now, let's try accessing our web server!
Woohoo! It works!

Example 3: Hosting a simple Docker container

Objectives

  • Host a simple Docker container through the Docker CLI
TensorDock operating system templates come preinstalled with Docker

Process

For networking, we forward an external port into an internal port in the virtual machine. Then, a Docker container forwards a virtual machine's port into its own internal network.
By default, the NGINX webserver listens on port 80 within the Docker container, but we can have the Docker container listen on any port. As such, we'll first forward an external port (e.g. 20018) into itself.
We'll forward an external port into an internal port on the virtual machine
Then, we'll set this as our cloud-init script:
write_files:
- path: /home/user/cloudinit_website/index.html
permissions: '0644'
content: |
<html>
<head>
<title> TensorDock Marketplace VM </title>
</head>
<body style="font-family: 'Courier New', monospace;">
<p> You've reached your <span style="color: green;">TensorDock</span> virtual machine!</p>
</body>
</html>
owner: www-data:www-data
runcmd:
- docker run -d --restart unless-stopped --stop-timeout 300 -v /home/user/cloudinit_website:/usr/share/nginx/html:ro -p 20018:80 --name default_container nginx
Note that we have our Docker container listen on port 20018 because we forwarded external port 20018 into the virtual machine on port 20018

Debrief

Explanation:
  • First, our server will write a file to a new directory containing our custom HTML
  • Then, our server will run a Docker container that passes through the directory of our HTML page into the NGINX contiainer
  • When users access the external port 20018, our hypervisor forwards that to the virtual machine's port 20018, and then Docker forwards that to the NGINX container on port 80
Now, let's try accessing our web server!
Woohoo! It works!

Example 4: Running Valdi hosting software on TensorDock

Valdi.ai is an excellent managed machine learning platform that you can provide compute power to.

Objectives

  • Run persistent Valdi.ai hosting workloads on TensorDock, automated through a cloudinit-script

Process

First, copy the following code block and replace the YOUR_EMAIL_HERE, YOUR_USERNAME_HERE, and YOUR_PASSWORD_HERE entries with your Valdi.ai
wget https://valdi.ai/downloads/bin/valdi-cloud-0.3.0.10/install-valdi-cloud-cli.sh
chmod +x install-valdi-cloud-cli.sh
bash ./install-valdi-cloud-cli.sh
sed -i 's/email",/YOUR_EMAIL_HERE",/' /usr/bin/valdi-cloud-cli/config.json
sed -i 's/username",/YOUR_USERNAME_HERE",/' /usr/bin/valdi-cloud-cli/config.json
sed -i 's/: "password/: "YOUR_PASSWORD_HERE/' /usr/bin/valdi-cloud-cli/config.json
systemctl enable td_valdi.service
systemctl start td_valdi.service
This is the script that we'll have our virtual machine run on boot.
For cloud-init to properly run this script, we'll convert it into a base64 format. You can use a service like https://www.base64encode.org/ to encode it.
You should see an output similar to:
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
Then, include that in line 15 of the script below:
write_files:
- encoding: b64
path: /home/user/tensordock_scripts/prevent_update.sh
permissions: '0644'
content: ZHBrZy1xdWVyeSAtVyAtLXNob3dmb3JtYXQ9JyR7UGFja2FnZX0gJHtTdGF0dXN9XG4nIHwgZ3JlcCAtdiBkZWluc3RhbGwgfCBhd2sgJ3sgcHJpbnQgJDEgfScgfCBncmVwIC1FICdudmlkaWEuKi1bMC05XSskJyB8IHhhcmdzIC1yIC1MIDEgc3VkbyBhcHQtbWFyayBob2xk
owner: user:user
- encoding: b64
path: /lib/systemd/system/td_valdi.service
permissions: '0644'
content: W1VuaXRdCkRlc2NyaXB0aW9uPQpBZnRlcj1uZXR3b3JrLnRhcmdldAoKW1NlcnZpY2VdClR5cGU9c2ltcGxlCkV4ZWNTdGFydD0vdXNyL2Jpbi92YWxkaS1jbG91ZC1jbGkvdmFsZGktY2xvdWQKCltJbnN0YWxsXQpXYW50ZWRCeT1tdWx0aS11c2VyLnRhcmdldA==
owner: root:root
- encoding: b64
path: /home/user/tensordock_scripts/valdi_init.sh
permissions: '0644'
content: [YOUR_BASE_64_OUTPUT_HERE]
owner: user:user
runcmd:
- bash /home/user/tensordock_scripts/prevent_update.sh
- bash /home/user/tensordock_scripts/valdi_init.sh
Your final result should be something like:
write_files:
- encoding: b64
path: /home/user/tensordock_scripts/prevent_update.sh
permissions: '0644'
content: ZHBrZy1xdWVyeSAtVyAtLXNob3dmb3JtYXQ9JyR7UGFja2FnZX0gJHtTdGF0dXN9XG4nIHwgZ3JlcCAtdiBkZWluc3RhbGwgfCBhd2sgJ3sgcHJpbnQgJDEgfScgfCBncmVwIC1FICdudmlkaWEuKi1bMC05XSskJyB8IHhhcmdzIC1yIC1MIDEgc3VkbyBhcHQtbWFyayBob2xk
owner: user:user
- encoding: b64
path: /lib/systemd/system/td_valdi.service
permissions: '0644'
content: W1VuaXRdCkRlc2NyaXB0aW9uPQpBZnRlcj1uZXR3b3JrLnRhcmdldAoKW1NlcnZpY2VdClR5cGU9c2ltcGxlCkV4ZWNTdGFydD0vdXNyL2Jpbi92YWxkaS1jbG91ZC1jbGkvdmFsZGktY2xvdWQKCltJbnN0YWxsXQpXYW50ZWRCeT1tdWx0aS11c2VyLnRhcmdldA==
owner: root:root
- encoding: b64
path: /home/user/tensordock_scripts/valdi_init.sh
permissions: '0644'
content: 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
owner: user:user
runcmd:
- bash /home/user/tensordock_scripts/prevent_update.sh
- bash /home/user/tensordock_scripts/valdi_init.sh

Debrief

Explanation:
  • First, we'll prevent NVIDIA's default automatic driver updates (see Example 1: Preventing the automatic update of NVIDIA drivers)
  • Then, we create a file that defines a service to run Valdi's hosting binary
  • Next, we create a script that installs the Valdi software and configures systemd to run the binaries on boot as a service.